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What induced me to write this book was the circum- chiefly stance that a number of on connected with legends subjects the of the cosmical have been time history systems repeated after time, not in works on the of science only general history and literature like those of Hallam and but also in Draper, books dealing specially with astronomy. and the of the world is thus divided into of history periods different character. The turning at the solstices is also said to of the sun be caused by the enclosing sphere, which prevents the sun from always moving straight line, and by the in a tropical circles 2. resembles a tympanon, that is to it is flat on the surface say, but with a elevated rim He accounted for 3 probably slightly . The planets appear not to have had any orbital motion, but merely to have revolved from east to west somewhat more than the fixed stars 7 The sun and moon are solid slowly . The concluding poetical descrip- tion of the Sirens chanting to the motion of the is planets does retrograde more than and but query, does iirava KVK\i^ Jupiter Saturn, imply a backward motion ? The of the celestial motions is ranges continuity beautifully expressed by giving the control of them to the three goddesses of fate; Klotho, who rules present, directing the the diurnal motion of the whole heavens who rules ; Atropos, the future, controlling the planetary motions varied in the direction and Lachesis, of the opposite ; goddess past, assisting both and the of the operations thereby securing participation in the motion of of the universe, the planets daily every part earth alone In the three mentioned Plato referred in dialogues only passing to the system of the world, but after finishing the he wrote another the Timceus, in which he Republic dialogue, his views on the world, and which we put together physical must therefore consider in more detail.
Outside the worship ranks of the priesthood there was no attempt at study of any kind, so that speculations origin and on the construction of the world were always interwoven with mythological fancies to the exclusion of independent thought. The views of Empedokles of Agrigentum (about 450 B. We must posed ” here over Plato’s account of the formation of the soul of pass the world,” which though beautiful has no direct exceedingly connection with his astronomical views, as the except regards distances of the which he to the planets, supposes proportional derived from the two following figures, geometrical progressions 1, 2, 4, 8 and 1, 3, 9, 27. m] Plato 63 them in an uniform motion around the same centre, and he made one of the circles external, the other internal 1 The .In numerous passages of the Old Testament we find ideas as to the construction of the world which are the practically same as those held by the Babylonians. 580, says that the sun is an earth to which the motion has imparted heat. Xenophanes following noticed that shells are found on dry land and even on moun- tains, while in several such as the at places, quarries Syracuse, of fish and of seals have been found these imprints ; imprints, made long ago when was covered with he were says, everything mud and the then dried in the mud. light, subtle and rarefied, and earth or dense and night, heavy, analogous respectively Notwithstanding the close connection of his philosophical doctrines with those of Xenophanes, Parmenides was able to perceive the spherical form of the earth, and deserves great he credit for having taken this great step forward, which no philosopher outside the Pythagorean school was sufficiently unprejudiced to till Plato appeared. Parmenides may, however, also have supposed that 1 the earth ought to be of the same figure as its surroundings 2 , as he arranged the universe in a series of concentric layers round the earth. The circle of daily the Diverse intersects it in two diametrically opposite points, their planes forming an acute angle, like the letter X. the east, and that the place left is the towards which this motion is directed. Plato assumes that the seven all evidently planets move in the same and that the line of intersection of plane, this Timaeus next tells his hearers that God resolved to form a movable image of eternity on the principle of numbers, which we call time 38 ” With this the created (p. design Deity the sun, moon, and the five other stars which are called planets, to fix and maintain the numbers of time.Nothing is said as to 1 In the days of Nippur they were supposed to live on the top of the earth- mountain. 8, ” for the of the earth are the Lord’s, and He pillars hath set the world upon them.” On the other hand we read in Ps. 6 that God ” forth the earth above the spread waters,” and in Job xxvi. The Early Greek Philosophers 17 i] from falling by the support of the air, while the of the density air limits their motion in declination The heat of the sun is 1 . He believed imprints would eventually sink into the sea and become that the earth mud after which the human race will anew 3 again, begin . Theophrastus take attri- buted the to Parmenides and not to 2 discovery Pythagoras , and the former was therefore probably the first to announce it in He is also said to have been the first to divide the writing. 21, where it is said that Parmenides was the ; 3 Strabo, n. This is the first time we meet with the system of con- centric which afterwards so a in spheres, played important part the of The outermost of these ” the history astronomy. While the circle of the Same revolves laterally towards the right from east to the motion in the circle of the (that is, west), “” diverse is diagonally towards the in the direc- left, opposite “” the inclined zodiacal circle The is 1 tion, along . This would be natural west, to a Greek, who when taking auspices by watching the flight of birds would turn to the north, and as a star sub polo is moving from left to Plato right, might well say that the diurnal motion was towards right. 42; Boeckh’s Untersuchimgen tiber das kosmische System des Platon, pp. And when he had made these bodies God them, seven in number, in the placed seven orbits described by the revolutions according to the Diverse, the moon in the first orbit nearest to the earth, the sun in the second above the earth, then the star and morning the star sacred to Hermes, in their orbits with the revolving same speed as the sun, but having force opposed to received a it S’ evaviiav et A/^OTa?under 21), which Ezekiel “the “the nether again apparently supposes pit,” of the earth,” to be the destination of the uncircumcised part heathen after death (Ezek. the upper waters that be above 18), supporting ” (Ps. 4), an idea more distinctly the heavens which is set forth in Genesis i. Theon in their of Smyrna says that Anaximenes was that the moon aware borrows its from the sun, and knew the true cause of light lunar eclipses, but this is not mentioned by any other writer 2. In opposition to the Ionians he does not let be derived from a everything primary – Aet. Travellers had probably also announced the gator different of the day in different latitudes, a fact which length 2 Diog. The moon is, however, also said ” to derive its light from the sun, and to appear always gazing ” earnestly towards the rays of the sun (i.e. 760) ” by the various districts in their turn, by going to the place next in order towards the right in a circle, and let the right be that which is in the east.” And the author of the Epinomis says that the planetary motions are (p. d), ” artificer bade these circles the move in (of planets) contrary directions to each other.” If the latter statement had not been by that in 38 D, we might have been inclined to supported think with Proklus that Plato had made a 1 perhaps merely and had meant to that the moved in the slip say planets direction to that of the rotation of the heavens.6, 7 ” And God said, Let there be a : firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 354a, where this opinion is attributed to “ancient meteoro- logists.” 3 “Like a table,” Aet. The Ionian school had not advanced far in the direction very of a rational idea of the universe. having its bright part turned towards the sun) ; he also says that it shines with borrowed 5 The sun and moon have been formed of light . opposite daily But the other sentence (about the force to the sun) opposed clearly enough that Plato believed Mercury and shows really Venus to differ in some manner from the other important Theon understood the sentence in to mean planets.Johannesburg – If you need a little bit of sunshine in your life, Somizi’s Instagram page is the place to be. Yes, Somizi actually went out and bought airtime for his fans!
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belittle the knowledge of the Ancients, making out that Plato imagined the earth to be a cube and that the spheres of Eudoxus and the Ptolemaic and Tychonic systems are impossible and absurd. together mixed with fire, it is flat like a disc and illuminated by the sun Empedokles assumed the existence of two separate 3 . 363) says that Empedokles remarked 1 that the height of the heavens was less than its breadth, the universe having the shape of an egg. Nor does he to have mentioned appear the annual motion of the sun with to the but regard stars, only its motion north and south. Sokrates first shortly reviews the results of the conversation on the political previous and Kritias tells a old myth about the vanished day, charming island of Atlantis, in order to show that this ideal state of had once upon a time existed among the society really Athenians.
In order to enable the reader to check every statement made and to form his own opinion every on debatable I point, have full references to the authorities. celestial 4 one of fire and another of air with hemispheres , only a little or a and a side and as the was fire, day night ; sphere made to rotate by the push of the fire, the two halves are in turn above the earth and cause and “the earth makes day night, night by coming in front of the lights 5,” i.e. The motion of the sun he daily believed to have been so slow at the time when the human race from the earth, that the day was as as ten sprang long months are now afterwards it became reduced to the ; length of seven months, and this is the reason why ten-month and seven-month children can live 3. Before proceeding further in the attempt to trans- plant the ideal citizens of the Republic into real life, the parties to let Timseus, who has an intimate knowledge present agree of science, give them a lecture on the origin and construction of the universe and the formation of man.
2 In early (Sumeriau) texts there are twin mountains between which the sun passes. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, Strassburg, 1890, pp. 27), and ” it is He that sitteth upon ” the circle of the earth (Is. 22) ; but the earth supposed is to rest on or “foundations,” often referred in “pillars” to, eg. 7, that ” He stretcheth out the north over empty and hangeth the earth upon space nothing.” ” Under the surface of the earth is the from which great deep,” fountains and rivers and which an spring, plays important part in the account of the deluge. caused by the rapidity of its motion, but the stars do not give out any heat owing to their great distance. Xenophanes was more of a than of a perhaps poet philo- and the real founder of the Eleatic school was Parmenides sopher, of Elea, who lived in the of the fifth He is early part century. 21) to have attached himself to the but he was in his influenced by Pythagoreans, philosophy Xenophanes. earth into five zones, of which he made the central, torrid and uninhabited one, nearly twice as broad it was afterwards as reckoned to be, extending beyond the circles of the into tropics the zones 3 We cannot doubt that the true temperate . layers, extreme Olympos,” is a solid vault, chained by Necessity to serve as a limit to the courses of the stars 3. superiority given to the motion towards the that is to the right ; say, daily rotation of the heavens includes also the seven planets which are carried in at the same time along it, although they pursue With regard to this distinction between “left” and “right,” it looks at 1 first sight as if Plato were not consistent in his use of these expressions. seems to the Tins me a very simple explanation of the apparent inconsistency of Plato, which has troubled so many commentators. Svvafiiu), owing to which (rrfv avr The expression ” a force opposed ” to the sun, in the last sentence, is rather obscure and has rise to a of given variety from Theon of Smyrna and Proklus down to interpretations Martin.
253-257 ; The Earliest Cosmological Ideas 3 the actual figure of the earth, though the circle of the horizon is alluded to in several ” He set a circle upon the places, e.g. Under the deep is Sheol, ” the ” land of darkness and the shadow of death (Job x. Above the “” earth is the solid firmament, strong as a molten mirror ” (Job xxxvii. According to Anaximenes that in addition to the stars Hippolytus, taught there are also in the by them bodies of a terres- place occupied trial nature, carried along with the stars motion. His doctrines are expounded in a short poem on Nature, fragments of which are left. figure of the earth was first made clear through the of reports travellers about certain stars becoming circumpolar when the observer proceeded to the north of the Euxine, while a very bright star (Canopus), invisible in Greece, was just visible above the horizon at Rhodes, and rose the further the navi- higher went south. Next to it comes a layer formed of the subtle element, and under this layers of a mixed character 4 first the and (arecfxivai) , morning evening star ( which he knew to be the same) in the ether, next below which he placed the sun and then the moon, both being of a fiery nature and equal in size. In the sixth book of the “Laws” he proposes to let the country be ruled (p. Plato evidently refers to the intimate connection between the sun and the two inferior which never planets travel far from it, and this sentence must be considered in connection with the statement 36 that the already quoted (p.
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