Validating measures of information technology outsourcing risks factors
Such images run counter to those of environmental destruction and chronic hunger and seem disconnected from the challenges of climate change, energy use, and biodiversity loss.
Global data for maize, rice, and wheat indicate that they take up only 20 to 50% of the nitrogen applied in fertilizer; the rest is lost to surrounding environments.Evidence indicates that selection pressures on wild annuals quickly resulted in domesticated plants with more desirable traits than their wild relatives.The unchanged wild perennials probably would have been ignored in favor of the increasingly large, easily harvested seeds of the modified annual plants.Plant breeders can now, for perhaps the first time in history, develop perennial versions of major grain crops.Perennial crops have substantial ecological and economic benefits.During the past decade, plant breeders in the United States have been working to develop perennial versions of wheat, sorghum, sunflowers, and legumes.
Preliminary work has also been done to develop a perennial maize, and Swedish researchers see potential in domesticating a wild mustard species as a perennial oilseed crop.
Their longer growing seasons and more extensive root systems make them more competitive against weeds and more effective at capturing nutrients and water.
Farmers don’t have to replant the crop each year, don’t have to add as much fertilizer and pesticide, and don’t burn as much diesel in their tractors.
Colorful fruits and vegetables piled to overflowing at a farmer’s market or in the produce aisle readily come to mind when we think about farming and food production.
REGANOLD Perennial Grains Food Security for the Future Developing perennial versions of our major grain crops would address many of the environmental limitations of annuals while helping to feed an increasingly hungry planet.
Since the initial domestication of crops more than 10,000 years ago, annual grains have dominated food production.