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Developing and validating trust measures

Patients Initial measure development was divided into two consecutive phases.

Measure responses depicted participation in collaborative goal setting within five domains: (1) listen and learn from each other, (2) share ideas, (3) caring relationship, (4) agree on a measurable objective, and (5) support for goal achievement.A letter of study introduction and the survey were mailed to patients in October 2013.The letter of study introduction described the study in general terms, asked that the patient complete the enclosed questionnaire, and included a $2.00 bill.Survey administration followed a Dillman approach:14 two weeks after the initial mailing, non-respondents received a reminder postcard; after an additional 2 weeks, non-respondents were sent another survey packet.Correspondence was mailed using first class postage, personalized communication, and stamped return envelopes, each of which has been shown to improve response rates.15 16 Patients who returned a survey received a $20 gift card to a local retail store.Research design and methods A random sample of 400 patients aged 40 years or older, receiving diabetes care from the Virginia Commonwealth University Health System between 8/2012 and 8/2013, were mailed a survey containing potential PM-CGS items (n=44) as well as measures of patient demographics, perceived self-management competence, trust in their physician, and self-management behaviors.

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity.

Objective Despite known benefits of patient-perceived collaborative goal setting, we have a limited ability to monitor this process in practice.

We developed the Patient Measure of Collaborative Goal Setting (PM-CGS) to evaluate the use of collaborative goal setting from the patient's perspective.

The latter was done by using the previously hypothesized pathways through which engagement in collaborative goal setting is thought to impact self-management behaviors.1–4Study eligible participants were those patients receiving care for their diabetes from the Virginia Commonwealth University Health System (VCU-HS).

Eligible patients were aged 40 years or older with an outpatient visit to a primary care or endocrinology for diabetes (ie, ICD-9=250 or 366.41, 357.2, 362.0) between August 2012 and August 2013.

Results A total of 259 patients responded to the survey (64% response rate), of which 192 were eligible for inclusion.