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Automobiles revolutionized dating 20th century

automobiles revolutionized dating 20th century-48

Walton Lillehei (often called the "father of open heart surgery") and John Gibbon (who invented the heart-lung machine). In the US, English-born Leo Daft used a third-rail system to electrify the Baltimore & Hampden lines in 1885.

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When myths go unchallenged for too long, they begin to eclipse the truth. Although this page does not cover every dubious invention claim floating around out there, it should at least serve as a warning never to take any such claim for granted. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore arms and two gas lamps.21, 1885 issue of Scientific American as "perhaps the first ever sent to and from a moving train." Phelps remained at the forefront in developing the technology and by the end of 1887 already held 14 US patents on his system.He joined a team led by Thomas Edison, who had been working on his "grasshopper telegraph" for trains, and together they constructed on the Lehigh Valley Railroad one of the only induction telegraph systems ever put to commercial use.Garrett Morgan's cross-shaped, crank-operated semaphore was not among the first half-hundred patented traffic signals, nor was it "automatic" as is sometimes claimed, nor did it play any part in the evolution of the modern traffic light. The invention of the gas mask predates Morgan's breathing device by several decades. No product born in his laboratory was widely adopted.For details see Inventing History: Garrett Morgan and the Traffic Signal. Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in 1854 and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s, among many other inventors prior to World War I. George Washington Carver (who began his peanut research in 1903)? Peanuts, which are native to the New World tropics, were mashed into paste by Aztecs hundreds of years ago. Kellogg, of cereal fame, secured US patent #580787 in 1897 for his "Process of Preparing Nutmeal," which produced a "pasty adhesive substance" that Kellogg called "nut-butter." George Washington Carver "Discovered" hundreds of new and important uses for the peanut? The boom years for Southern peanut production came prior to, and not as a result of, Carver's promotion of the crop.Since many of the authors have little interest in the history of technology outside of advertising black contributions to it, their stories tend to be fraught with misunderstandings, wishful thinking, or fanciful embellishments with no historical basis.

The lack of historical perspective leads to extravagant overestimations of originality and importance: sometimes a slightly modified version of a pre-existing piece of technology is mistaken for the first invention of its type; sometimes a patent or innovation with little or no lasting value is portrayed as a major advance, even if there's no real evidence it was ever used.

Granville Woods prevented railway accidents and saved countless lives by inventing the train telegraph (patented in 1887), which allowed communication to and from moving trains? The earliest patents for train telegraphs go back to at least 1873.

Lucius Phelps was the first inventor in the field to attract widespread notice, and the telegrams he exchanged on the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad in January 1885 were hailed in the Feb.

Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent #306727 issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in 1884, for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached "a fluid or semi-fluid state." As the product cooled, it set into what Edson described as "a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment." In 1890, George A. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels. Carver's work to improve regional farming practices was not of pioneering scientific importance and had little demonstrable impact.

To see how Carver gained "a popular reputation far transcending the significance of his accomplishments," read Mackintosh's excellent article George Washington Carver: The Making of a Myth.

Although this telegraph was a technical success, it fulfilled no public need, and the market for on-board train telegraphy never took off.